In this, the first wide-ranging study of the 'traditionalist' or 'perennialist' school of twentieth-century thinkers, the author discusses the vital significance of their writings for the contemporary world, particularly in relation to the convergence of religious traditions and the destructive impact of modernity. This book opens with a presentation of the three pre-eminent figures in this movement-René Guénon, Ananda Coomaraswamy, and Frithjof Schuon-now widely regarded as the foremost exponents in the modern era of The Perennial Philosophy, that timeless wisdom which lies at the heart of all religious traditions. Their writings, as well as those of Titus Burckhardt, Marco Pallis, Martin Lings, Seyyed Hossein Nasr, and others, are dedicated to the elucidation of the metaphysical and cosmological principles that inform the perennial wisdom, and to the explication of the manifold ways in which these principles found concrete expression in traditional societies. While affirming the essential unity of all religions, traditionalism is concerned with preserving the particular forms that give each religious heritage its raison d'être while at the same time ensuring its spiritual efficacy. This book explains why no one engaged in religious and cultural studies can afford to disregard the urgent message of the traditionalists, who have reminded a forgetful world-in a manner that can be ignored but not refuted-of those principles which everywhere and always remain true. It also demostrates why any reassessment of contemporary values-now increasingly called into question-must take into account the profound traditionalist critique of the modern Western worldview.